How do you form your Chords?

Image
Anything to do with Music Theory. Nothing too serious! Let's keep it light-hearted, although we may get serious too.
Post your observations in here.

How do you form your Chords?

Postby Hugh-AR » 21 Jul 2018 10:12

1.

Here's a 'computerised' Chord Chart that will show you which notes make up a particular chord. Click on this picture-link below.

Do a right-click and choose Save link as.. to download the Chart onto eg. your Desktop. Once downloaded to your Desktop, double-click on the icon on your Desktop to run it (you may have to over-ride security and get "More information", then "Run it anyway" the first time you do it).

Image

When you run the program, this is what you see:

Image

Choose a 'Root' note from the left hand column eg. C. You can switch between flats and sharps being displayed by clicking the appropriate symbol just above, in Accidentals, b or #). In the second column choose the actual chord you want to see set up eg. C7. The notes you need to play for that chord show up on the piano.

You can also switch between Inversions by switching 'Inversions' at the top. In the below I have set it to go to the right, so you get this:

Image

2.

And below is an 'on-line' Chord Chart that AndyG has put up elsewhere in this Forum. Click on the 'picture-link' to go there.

Do a right-click to open the page up in a New Tab

Image

3.

And here below is a YouTube video with an analysis of how chords are formed.



In this video he makes a very interesting comment about C+9. It is often misquoted as C9, which is not the same chord at all! C+9 can also be written as C+2.

Hugh
It's all about the music. Yamaha AR 80 Player.
Image .. Image
Challenge Winner
2018 August (Joint Winner); October (Joint Winner); November (Joint Winner); December (Joint Winner)
2019 March (Joint Winner); May (Joint Winner)
User avatar
Hugh-AR
Prolific Poster
 
Posts: 3141
Joined: 07 Feb 2015 15:34
Location: Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby Hugh-AR » 21 Jul 2018 10:23

A personal account of forming a chord.

As I see it, there are three main ways you can play a chord you see written on a piece of music.

A.

For the many chords that appear on your sheet music you can look up the notes to play to make up the chord. There are "Chord Charts" that show every chord you could possibly want. A computerised Chord Analyser like the one above is even better as you can click with the mouse and actively take part in your search.

Now for most music there are about ten chords that they may use. I am not talking here about the variety of chords that you may see in a piece, but the chords that can be formed on one particular note. Eg. On C , you could have:

    C MAJOR ( C )
    C MINOR ( C m )
    C SIXTH ( C 6 )
    C MINOR SIXTH ( C m 6 )
    C SEVENTH ( C 7 )
    C NATURAL 7th (C nat 7 )
    C AUGMENTED (C + )
    C DIMINISHED (C dim
    .. sometimes written as C o )
    C SUSPENDED 4th (C sus 4 )
    C NINTH (C 9 )
As there are seven white notes and five black ones, in total there are twelve notes you could form a chord on. So the total number of chords available for a piece of music is 12 x 10 = 120 (in addition to others that are less common). Now you could commit all these chords to memory, or remember the most frequently used ones depending on the key the piece is played in, but to my way of thinking there is no logic in this as there is no indication as to how these chords are formed in the first place. So no thanks, you won't catch me going down this road!

Hugh
It's all about the music. Yamaha AR 80 Player.
Image .. Image
Challenge Winner
2018 August (Joint Winner); October (Joint Winner); November (Joint Winner); December (Joint Winner)
2019 March (Joint Winner); May (Joint Winner)
User avatar
Hugh-AR
Prolific Poster
 
Posts: 3141
Joined: 07 Feb 2015 15:34
Location: Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby Hugh-AR » 21 Jul 2018 10:43

B.

Next, how the chords are formed from "scales". For this method you would have to know the notes in each scale. Twelve possible notes to start on, so twelve scales to learn. Mind you, each scale is based on "intervals", so you can work a scale out if you don't already know it.

I'm sure we all know what a "scale" is in Tonic Sol-fa. If not from our school days, then from Julie Andrews teaching the children how to sing in The Sound Of Music. "You start at the very beginning .. a very good place to start" .. with Doh. The notes in a scale are doh, ray, me, fah, soh, lah, te, doh (the top 'doh' being one octave above the first). And there are other names for the sharps and flats .. but don't ask me what they are!

If you want more of the history of Tonic Sol-fa then take a look at the entry on the Wikipedia website by clicking the LINK below:

Do a right-click to open this up in a New Tab
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonic_sol-fa

So starting on any note you play the "scale" doh, ray, me, fah, soh, lah, te (I haven't gone right to the end) and from this point on will use numbers to donate the position on the scale. So doh=1, ray=2, me=3, fah=4, soh=5, lah=6 and te=7.

Another way to form a scale is by "intervals", and I use this terminology as this is the basis for Method C. I shall define an interval as one semitone "up" (ie. the next note up, whether it be white or black). The "intervals" for a scale, starting on any note, are as follows:

Tonic (base note .. the one you are starting with) then (in intervals) 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1.

So starting with C, the "Scale" (doh, ray, me, fah, soh, lah, te, do) .. working it out using the "intervals" above .. is C, D, E, F, G, A, B (and then on to "top C" with the final interval of 1). Now we all know the scale of C, I'm sure .. but you could use this method for working out the notes in the scale of, say, F#.

The idea now is just to use the numbers to represent the scale rather than the tonic sol-fa names. So the scale becomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, x (x being note 8, but being the octave above 1 and having the same letter as 1 it will not be referred to as 8. It is 1 again!).

The chords are described using the numbers in the scale. Which is why I said you would have to know your scales to use this method.

So, in C , 1=C, 2=D, 3=E, 4=F, 5=G, 6=A and 7=B.
And in F , 1=F, 2=G, 3=A, 4=Bb, 5=C, 6=D and 7=E.

A MAJOR chord is 1 - 3 - 5
C MAJOR ( C ) is C - E - G and F MAJOR ( F ) is F - A - C (ie. the first, third and fifth notes of the respective scales).

A MINOR chord is 1 - 3 (flatted) - 5
C MINOR ( C m ) is C - Eb - G and F MINOR ( F m ) is F - Ab - C (ie. the first, third “flatted” and fifth notes of the respective scales).

A SIXTH chord is 1 - 3 - 5 - 6
C SIXTH ( C 6 ) is C - E - G - A and F SIXTH ( F 6 ) is F - A – C - D (ie. the major chord + the sixth note of the respective scales).

A MINOR SIXTH chord is 1 - 3 (flatted) - 5 - 6
C MINOR SIXTH( C m 6 ) is C - Eb - G - A and F MINOR SIXTH ( F m 6 ) is F - Ab - C - D (ie. the minor chord + the sixth note of the respective scales).

A SEVENTH chord is 1 - 3 - 5 - 7 (flatted)
C SEVENTH ( C 7 ) is C - E - G - Bb and F SEVENTH ( F 7 ) is F - A - C - Eb (ie. the major chord + the seventh note “flatted” in the respective scales).

A NATURAL SEVENTH chord is 1 - 3 - 5 - 7
C NATURAL SEVENTH ( C nat 7 ) is C - E - G - B and F NATURAL SEVENTH ( F nat 7 ) is F - A - C - E (ie. the major chord + the seventh note “flatted” in the respective scales).

An AUGMENTED chord is 1 - 3 - 5 (sharpened)
C AUGMENTED ( C + ) is C - E - G# and F AUGMENTED ( F + ) is F - A - C# (ie. the first, third and fifth note “sharpened” in the respective scales).

A DIMINISHED chord is 1 - 3 (flatted) - 4 (sharpened) - 6
C DIMINISHED ( C dim ) is C - Eb - F# - A and F DIMINISHED ( F dim ) is F - Ab - B - D

A SUSPENDED 4th chord is 1 - 4 - 5
C SUSPENDED 4th ( C sus 4 ) is C - F - G and F SUSPENDED 4th ( F sus 4 ) is F - Bb - C (ie. the major chord with the third note “sharpened” in the respective scales).

A NINTH chord is 1 - 2 - 3 - 5 -7 (flatted)
C NINTH ( C 9 ) is C - D - E - G - Bb and F NINTH ( F 9 ) is F - G - A - C - Eb (ie. the "seventh" chord with the ninth note added, in the respective scales).

Now having written all this out it looks so complicated I think I’ll go back to method A ! Seriously though, if you do know your scales then the “numbers” mentioned above become second nature and it is a fairly simple process to work out the chord from scratch.
It's all about the music. Yamaha AR 80 Player.
Image .. Image
Challenge Winner
2018 August (Joint Winner); October (Joint Winner); November (Joint Winner); December (Joint Winner)
2019 March (Joint Winner); May (Joint Winner)
User avatar
Hugh-AR
Prolific Poster
 
Posts: 3141
Joined: 07 Feb 2015 15:34
Location: Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby Hugh-AR » 21 Jul 2018 10:50

C.

The third way is by starting with any note (I shall call this the Root of the chord) you form the chord using “intervals” from one note to the next, an “interval” being defined as one semitone "up" (ie. the next note up, whether it be white or black). The "intervals" for the various chords are:

A MAJOR chord is Root + 4 + 3
C MAJOR ( C ) is C - E - G and F MAJOR ( F ) is F - A - C

A MINOR chord is Root + 3 + 4
C MINOR ( C m ) is C - Eb - G and F MINOR ( F m ) is F - Ab - C

A SIXTH chord is Root + 4 + 3 + 2
C SIXTH ( C 6 ) is C - E - G - A and F SIXTH ( F 6 ) is F - A – C - D

A MINOR SIXTH chord is Root + 3 + 4 + 2
C MINOR SIXTH( C m 6 ) is C - Eb - G - A and F MINOR SIXTH ( F m 6 ) is F - Ab - C - D

A SEVENTH chord is Root + 4 + 3 + 3. Or, as Peter Anderson said in an email to me .. the “seventh” note is Root minus 2 (Root – 2) and you include this note with the Major chord for eg. C 7 and with the Minor chord for C m 7.
C SEVENTH ( C 7 ) is C - E - G - Bb and F SEVENTH ( F 7 ) is F - A - C - Eb

A NATURAL SEVENTH chord is Root + 4 + 3 + 4 … or, as Peter Anderson would say the “natural seventh” note is Root minus 1.
C NATURAL SEVENTH ( C nat 7 ) is C - E - G - B and F NATURAL SEVENTH ( F nat 7 ) is F - A - C - E

An AUGMENTED chord is Root + 4 + 4
C AUGMENTED ( C + ) is C - E - G# and F AUGMENTED ( F + ) is F - A - C#

A DIMINISHED chord is Root + 3 + 3 + 3
C DIMINISHED ( C dim ) is C - Eb - F# - A and F DIMINISHED ( F dim ) is F - Ab - B - D


A SUSPENDED 4th chord is Root + 5 + 3
C SUSPENDED 4th ( C sus 4 ) is C - F - G and F SUSPENDED 4th ( F sus 4 ) is F - Bb - C

A NINTH chord is the SEVENTH chord with the note Root + 2 added.
C NINTH ( C 9 ) is C - D - E - G - Bb and F NINTH ( F 9 ) is F - G - A - C - Eb

Below is a YouTube video explaining the above method for Major and Minor chords.



Hugh
It's all about the music. Yamaha AR 80 Player.
Image .. Image
Challenge Winner
2018 August (Joint Winner); October (Joint Winner); November (Joint Winner); December (Joint Winner)
2019 March (Joint Winner); May (Joint Winner)
User avatar
Hugh-AR
Prolific Poster
 
Posts: 3141
Joined: 07 Feb 2015 15:34
Location: Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, UK

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby dentyr » 27 Apr 2019 08:41

Hello. Sorry, there is NO easy way to remember chords. You just have to learn them and get them embedded into your - well what have you. Try this method. No learning, just press the keys as shown. No key signature, no accidentals, just play.



Regards,Den.
Image
I knit dolls and animal toys.
I always try to do things which I can't do in order to learn how to do them.
Keyboards: Yamaha Tyros 4 and PSR S 770, StagePa300 (WOW)
User avatar
dentyr
Active Poster
 
Posts: 102
Joined: 23 Jan 2018 17:14
Location: Victoria, Australia

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby dentyr » 29 May 2019 14:56

Hello, All the chords are shown on the Yamaha kbds. Press Functions, and tab to the page. These show just as the first clip on this thread. Regards, Den.
Image
I knit dolls and animal toys.
I always try to do things which I can't do in order to learn how to do them.
Keyboards: Yamaha Tyros 4 and PSR S 770, StagePa300 (WOW)
User avatar
dentyr
Active Poster
 
Posts: 102
Joined: 23 Jan 2018 17:14
Location: Victoria, Australia

Re: How do you form your Chords?

Postby Rev Tony Newnham » 30 May 2019 08:06

Hi

KlavarScribo may have been discussed here previously. I came across it many years ago, and thought at the time, as I still do, that it's probably not worth the effort of learning given that it's not really caught on, and relatively little music is published in the format. In the long run it's probably better to learn conventional notation (or at least melody & chord symbols).

Every Blessing

Tony
Image
User avatar
Rev Tony Newnham
Super Poster
 
Posts: 353
Joined: 16 Dec 2012 17:08
Location: Rugby


Return to Music Theory

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest

cron